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Like offerings, programs feature courses in freehand drafting, architectural design and construction law. programs require students to participate in a design studio, which allows them to showcase the skills they've learned in producing building sketches and models. Additionally, most students take computer-aided design and drafting courses to help them create 3-D structures and models. Construction - the process of creating physical structures. Aga Khan Award for Architecture (AKAA) - an architectural prize established by Aga Khan IV in 1977, awarded for achievements in design and planning in Islamic societies. Architecture prize - Architecture prizes are generally awarded for completed projects and are chosen from publicised or nominated works, 6 not from submissions by the originating architect. Project management - the process of managing all the activities involved in a construction project, including adherence to the design and local legislation, costs and payment, and verification of project completion. Cost accounting or cost management - a vital activity in connection with building, generally performed by a specialist quantity surveyor Construction projects are notoriously subject to cost overruns , caused by changing circumstances or by failure to fully allow for foreseeable costs during budgeting. Brief (architecture) - a written statement of a client's requirements for a building project. It is a component of architecture and building engineering and is sometimes viewed as a distinct discipline or sub-category. Architectural drawing or architect's drawing - a technical drawing of a building or building project. Bachelor of Architecture (.) - undergraduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies, to be followed by a period of practical training prior to professional examination and registration. Foundation or footing - solid base usually below ground, upon which buildings and other structures are built. Although not all buildings are architecture, the term encompasses a huge range of building types, as summarised in the following list pages: Victorian architecture - includes several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. Neoclassical architecture - an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement which began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque. Baroque architecture - the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. Classical architecture - architecture derived in part from the Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, enriched by classicizing architectural practice in Europe since the Renaissance. Hoysala architecture - building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India. Romanesque architecture - an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. Sassanid architecture - the Persian architectural style that reached a peak in its development during the Sassanid era. Buddhist architecture - developed by the worshipers of Buddha in South Asia in the 3rd century BCE, and associated with three types of structures: monasteries (viharas), stupas, and temples (Chaitya grihas). Maya architecture - the structures of the Maya civilization, which was established circa 2000 BC and continued until its conquest by the Spanish (in the 16th and 17th centuries). Dravidian architecture - a style of architecture thousands of years ago in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, built by the Dravidian peoples. Achaemenid architecture - the architectural achievements of the Achaemenid Persians manifesting in construction of complex cities (Perspepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples made for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings (such as the burial tomb of Cyrus the Great). Neolithic architecture - architecture of the last part of the Stone Age, and of the people of the Americas and the Pacific up until the time of European contact. Architectural design values - the various values that influence architects and designers in making design decisions. Religious architecture - the design and construction of places of worship. Deconstructivism - based on the more general theory of deconstruction , a design style characterized by fragmentation, distortion and dislocation of structure and envelope. Architectural style - a specific way of building, characterized by the features that make it notable. Architectural designer - generally, a designer involved in architecture but not qualified as an architect. Architect - a person trained in the planning, design and supervision of building construction. A group or body of buildings in a particular style. The design activity of the architect, the profession of designing buildings. Architectural works with a certain indefinable combination of design quality and external circumstances may become cultural symbols and / or be considered works of art. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (27 March 1886 - 17 August 1969) is one of the most influential architects of the 20th century, known for his role in the development of the most enduring architectural style of the era: modernism Born in Aachen , Germany , Mies' career began in the influential studio of Peter Behrens , where Mies worked alongside other two other titans of modernism, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier For almost a century, Mies' minimalist style has proved very popular; his famous aphorism "less is more" is still widely used, even by those who are unaware of its origins. The West Kowloon Cultural District Authority ( WKCDA ) has announced the winning design for the inaugural Hong Kong Young Architects and Designers Competition The competition asked local architects and designers emerging in their careers to design a "temporary pavilion that promotes sustainability and addresses economic and natural resources." The winning design, titled Growing Up, by New Office Works is a timber pavilion that sits on the waterfront in Nursery Park at West Kowloon Paul Tse Yi-pong and Evelyn Ting Huei-chung from New Office Works will serve as Design Advisors with the project set to open in fall 2018. <a href="https://www.p-hotam.co.il/">עליות גג</a>    <a href="https://www.p-hotam.co.il/%D7%A2%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%95%D7%AA-%D7%92%D7%92/">עיצוב עליית גג</a> <a href="https://www.daganavi.com/">אדריכל בקריות</a> <a href="http://www.gabaygagot.co.il/">החלפת גגות רעפים</a> <a href="http://www.miriangel.co.il/"><span data-sheets-value="{"1":2,"2":"תכנון אדריכלי"}" data-sheets-userformat="{"2":8403459,"3":{"1":0},"4":{"1":2,"2":16777215},"12":1,"14":{"1":2,"2":3355443},"15":"Zefo, Arial","16":11,"26":400}">תכנון אדריכלי</span></a> <a href="https://zohar-itum.co.il/"><span data-sheets-value="{"1":2,"2":"איטום גגות במרכז"}" data-sheets-userformat="{"2":8403459,"3":[null,0],"4":[null,2,16777215],"12":1,"14":[null,2,3355443],"15":"Zefo, Arial","16":11,"26":400}">איטום גגות במרכז</span></a> <a href="http://netanel.co.il/">פרויקטים חדשים בתל אביב</a> <a href="https://www.evensela.com/">אבן לחיפוי קירות</a> <a href="http://www.parquets-worlds.co.il/%D7%9E%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%99%D7%9F-%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%A7%D7%98%D7%99%D7%9D-%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%9E%D7%9C%D7%A5/">מתקין פרקטים מומלץ</a>

  • Architecture

    Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.[3] Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD.[8] According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas,[9][10] commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be:

  • Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
  • Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used.
  • Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing.
  • According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, and was based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari:[11] by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish, and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts (1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men ... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health, power, and pleasure".[12] For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the very least.